WEBVTT
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Okay, we're ready to move on to the last lecture, we will begin recording.
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And I'm pleased that Mikhail Shaposhnikov maybe about any possible link to maybe between faith and gravity.
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Sorry.
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Please. Yeah. Okay, so.
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Earth.
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Okay.
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Good morning, everybody.
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So, it's a pleasure to be in California, no remorse name.
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Ah, so the topic of my lecture is Houston gravity connection. Okay.
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Okay, so this is just a combination of the standard model and granite. Okay, which describes basically everything except a few things such as that matter in between the masses and bear on the symmetry of the universe.
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Again, we can even write an action for the theory, which will be an action of the standard model, and an action Oh great. Okay, so how do we get.
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How should you modify the action of the standard model in the presence of gravity and it's very simple, your replacement cost a metric by arbitrary metric you replace integration Mazur do forex by the variant integration manager, and the you replace ordinary
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ordinary derivatives by covariance theory with you and curve space time.
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Okay. and you can add to that.
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Gravitational action, which is simply the Einstein action which contains two terms. One thing determine proportional to the scale, temperature and the term, which is, which can give us the smallest focus.
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Okay, this is a theory as a sad explains almost everything we can add the little fix to this theory to describe or observe phenomenon. This little fix can be three extra nutrients.
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Okay, so this extra neutrinos can give masses to order leptons one of this leptons can be a dogmatic particle. And also, in this theory you can explain why the universe contains more matter than on the map, and I as I will be explaining next lecture.
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And as I will be explained in next lecture. The Higgs boson can inflate and keep out of the universe. And this list, basically covers all phenomena which we can observe today.
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Okay, now, what time I see where it takes a standard model and gravity.
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We see that there are three scales. Okay, in this theory.
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So, the biggest scale, as the round of quantum gravity, which is related to Newton's constant. And we can combine different fundamental parameters such as search bar speed of light etc etc.
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and get from that, the Planck scale. Okay vision is fuel. times to the age gap where there is also another scale, which is a fairly new skill, which is associated with electronic interactions which is associated will be fairly constant.
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Okay. There is a practical which corresponds to the scale that will be balls of the mass. Welcome to gv okay and then there is yet another scale, which we observe and you to accelerate that expansion of the universe, which as that have cosmological constant
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or back energy, whatever the name you want to use for that.
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Okay, this three scales are extremely different okay there is a huge hierarchy between the bank scale began between the WR mass and between the scale, which is coming from a small logical consequence, or damage, the question arises.
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Other scaling dependent.
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We are given by nature three different numbers or some of this scales are some folks.
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But I'm not against so what I'm going to discuss in this lecture, a possible relationships between the black scale, and, and the week school. Okay, so I start from discussing behalf so we can get Newton constant gravity from the standard model.
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Okay, you will see what stays behind this stifle.
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Our, then they will discuss a hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis about possibility of having asymptote it safely of gravity and the standard model, and this hypothesis, which will lead us to our most determination of the himself Captain constant.
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And then I'm going to discuss a cemetery a cemetery which is called conformance imagery.
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And we will see whether the use of this imagery and gravity can we've asked to electronic signature.
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And I'll finish with concussions.
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Okay, so if you want to understand whether say this scale, and that scale related to each other, as I said, there is a huge hierarchy between them. You should better.
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Consider what happens with the standard model at very high energy. energy is
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much much higher than electric scale and which are of the, of the owner of the grant.
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Okay. So, for this and let's first make the following excess.
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Okay, first we forget completely about Greg. Okay, just standard model flat space time.
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And let's look at the normalization group evolution of all the calculations of the standard.
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Okay, so just to see where this couplings go when the energy is very very high.
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So, this can be done. This is just the standard RG revolution of all the components of the standard model and the due to the progress and multiple competitions we have.
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We can do this, running
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up to three loops. Okay, so this is pretty high catalyst.
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But I'm not going to write RG equations with loops that will take a lot of space so just write one loop approximation and so here are the relevant couplings, which we can consider here.
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Okay, so the first one is just this you have to gauge Coplin. That's a simplistic but the safe, there is minus sign, and the functions here.
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Then there is one coupling, which is not as in particular free as last sentence here again so total freedom and the SU three gauge coupling so this equations are particularly the simple.
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Other to relevant equation. So, those four top walk your collar Caitlyn, which is the know that fear by YT, and the Big South Conference, again there are different one loop diagrams, which contribute here.
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So this is a triangle with them,
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which is proportional to your Colorado, to the QR their contribution from strong interactions, from su to from the one.
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And we can also look at so the skills of coupling and there are different contributions okay written here, and they are coming with different science, there is a guy with the plus sign which one to increase the Higgs self Goblin, there is a contribution
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from top to cover Kaplan which wants to decrease at night, etc.
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So, we can take this equation, and we can look at the evolution of the scale of self coupling, which will be the most interesting for us and what follows the pan bang on on different parameters of the standard model so what I'm going to do.
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I mean there are many parameters. So I'm going to fix all of them except the Higgs mass. So we fix the mass of the top 173 GV, for instance, and then let's very.
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The Higgs mass. So, on this plot this axis here is the images kale, and this exosphere is the scale of self.
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Okay.
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Ah. So, what you observe is the following. Very interesting structure.
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If the scale of a couple of game is sufficient to launch them.
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The term with positive sign plus lambda square domains and scalar coupling goals up and the theory enters into the strong capital region. So, lambda is launch.
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If you start from the value of the Higgs mass of scales of coupling, which is sufficiently small, then the top loop dominates and the scalar so coupling crosses zero at some point.
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Okay, and eventually at some energy of escapism probably gets negative vicious dangerous thing because the theory becomes unstable. Okay, then this block, we should show, I think, also, the black mass, and some specific behavior, which will be very important
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in what follows, which can be called critical behavior and reach this gala self Goblin is always positive, and the touches zero at, at some point.
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Okay, so we can look at so this plot and then we can immediately understand So you mentioned that we don't know what was the Higgs mesquite okay and that was the time before.
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2012. Okay.
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Are we gonna ask ourselves, can be limits, be the NASA the Higgs boson for from this considerations, and that's what is Yes, okay. The Higgs mass, she'll be between two numbers for one number as around 110 gV, and another number as about one team.
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Okay, so for where this numbers are coming from.
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They so remember if the Higgs masses small get have this type of picture in the Higgs mass is why we have that type of pitch.
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Okay. So, if we take the last of the Higgs boson smaller. That's this number, then the potential for this game with, you know, you should incorporate radiative corrections and 44 blocks the past so this type of structure.
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Okay. So there is our minimum, corresponding to lead from mixing to break and kicks off to 250 jV, but then there is yet another one.
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Okay. And we take just the standard model without any modifications of it.
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And if you take the heat smash smaller than this number will see that's our back room as unstable metal stable, we can compute the lifetime of this raccoon.
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Okay, and that would mean that if the mass of of the Higgs boson is smaller than that. Damn, the theory must be when you find in some way. Otherwise we're on in contradiction are either is yet another number, which is called the reality bound, and this
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number is on the life side, the hips.
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So, you
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increase the Higgs mass.
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And then, so if the Higgs masses 175 gb, then the scalar self publishing develops strong coupling develops, what is called, Paul at the scale, which is on the order of plants them to the ninth of June.
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Now you increase the Higgs mass and then this pole moves in this direction, and roughly at one theory scale. It's just the heats the electronic scale.
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Okay.
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And this is, first of all, excluded experimentally. And secondly, that creates inconsistency is empathy.
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Okay. So,
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from this very generic consideration.
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We should conclude that the Higgs mass would be between these two numbers, and it happened to be so okay so the Higgs boson which was found that though we see mass long time 25 gb and we are between these two things.
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Okay now I'm coming to the right.
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So let's do the folding exercise.
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Let us fix all the parameters of the center of model, except for the top water comma coupling. Okay, so this is the calculation which is known, where the worst accuracy, so that this is very very high and then we see but still this is the coupling, which
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is, which we would like to know better,
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and run some fixed now the Higgs mass, then, and the around RG equations with a very high energy scale.
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Okay, and let's look at the critical points so once more, the critical point in this type of behavior of the scalar soft skills of self government goes down, touches zero, at some point, and then goes up.
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Okay.
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Ah, what, how do we fix this behavior, okay you're simply the scale of self publishing at some point, is equal to zero, and the beat the function, which is associated with slamming is also equal to zero.
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Okay, so these are two equations, and was the equations we can be talking to Brian.
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Okay, so one parameter would be a bit of work you can look up line, and you have another parameter is the scale at which this happens.
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Okay, so you can plug it into your equations.
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Surprise, surprise, what you're going to find is that the mass of the top Ward which corresponds to this critical behavior. Is it will to 170 1.4 gb. Okay, and this one side, some of them are the aero bars, when the Monte Carlo to measure it.
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So for instance if I take the latest wait for a few days ago from from CMS, then empty. from there is just one sigma away from this dump look now at the energy of the which show this happens.
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And we find that this is a standard at gv, so just the factor of three are smaller than the data.
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And the question that appears, whether this is a pure coincidence, or there is something, something deeper. So, this is another way to represent this results, looking at so the fee structure, or the standard model.
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So I'm this Exodus, I put the kicks mass on this axis. I put the mass of the top, then this line here. It's corresponds to the critical became so critical behavior is in which our minimum of potential is the same as the minimum which shows up at a high
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interest. Okay.
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And this also corresponds to our critical equations. Okay so, absolute stability as the picture of this or when the extra minimum is higher than ours
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instability, it's correspond to the situation when on the lifetime of the universe is smaller. Sorry, but when the lifetime of the vacuum is smaller than the lifetime of the universe and here we have met Mr.
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Bill.
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Well this is the
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top mass. So these are the Higgs mass we should observe.
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And we are here. And so all this ellipses are touching this some.
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This
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created a liar. Okay. And this point corresponds, basically, to do the task.
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Okay, so
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we can wander so white happened, that this value is equal to the black school.
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Okay.
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He's telling us something deeper about the theory of Jake was speaking you don't know. Okay, it's not it's interesting, and that there is a way to understand this guy incident, which is related to the hypothesis that the gravity has some political side,
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and also the standard model is so.
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So, let me explain your, what, what is some logic say.
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So take a generic quantum field theory.
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Right, most general Lagrangian, and the notion that you are so powerful that you can compute all employees employees use in all orders of regulations.
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Okay.
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Then you look at this amplitude so you require that the theories unitary Lawrence variant causal, etc.
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and this will lead to infinite number of conditions for infinite number of processes.
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Imagine that you can solve this consistency that equations and imagine that's the solution, which will, which will will be characterized by a finite number of essentially brand company constants, and if this is going to be the case, then you can make
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predictions in this field will be predict.
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Okay.
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Ah, this is kind of mission impossible to do this computation. So there are different approach to this, which can move you in this direction and so one of them as associated with normalization group, not broken but in general when an organization group.
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Okay, so how does this work, you introduce dimensional less government constants for all terms in the action.
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Some of the coupling constants are dimensional fool.
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And so you introduce this dimension the last guy is in the way, that's your energy parameter compensates the dimensionality of your captain constant.
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And then imagine that you can write the RG equations for this dimensional less complex.
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Then there are different possibilities.
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So even it takes a normalized double awesome politically free theorists, then we can get up fix point and solve that essential Kathleen's go to zero. When energy goes through thing.
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Okay, the number of these companies and finite only operators will dimensional smaller for a while.
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There is yet another option, which is non productive,
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which is associated with employee safety, and that's including sensitive basically this I posted this that you can get non Gauss.
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And if the dimensionality of the beautiful surface in the space of carbon constants, and this surface, the surface which points I attracted to star is finite, then the theory is also to the good, there are no solutions to that.
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So for instance in this employee free theories, you can have to see the subtotal grand unified theory is normalized both theories, and smaller number of dimensions are simply political the same, but mongrel normalized double theorists could be scale if
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field theory in three dimensions at the most efficient fixed point millenia sigma models in three dimensions, or, for instance, we can take a few of songs interactions, but not written in terms of agreements and works but in terms of pants.
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So, this is the theory, which can be, which is most reliable. But, which leads to some political affiliation theory, it's expressed in terms of nuance and.
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Now if you take standard model and look at it than the standard model as not as free.
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Now, not some people say, okay, has different ones out.
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Ah, you could say gravity. Gravity is also a theory, which is not normalized and their job when it enters down to a strong couple regime at the energy is larger than the blanks.
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Okay.
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So, winder came out with the conjecture.
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Quite a while ago that gravity can be simpler to go to say so. So, this means that the plank constant is increasing within the tree as finishes.
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So, obviously, we can ride that blank mass depends on on the energy.
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Here there is some unknown parameter excited zero, and
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there is some evidence in favor of this project. So windup himself he considerate epsilon expansion, starting from two dimensions, going from two to four as quite a long join them that there is an activity, which uses exact functional normalization go
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group equations, and to engage them and then sold them, and email this site is, indeed, it looks like the gravity, can be as important.
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And then there are some other things. However, the answer is not not. Okay, We don't know whether gravity is safe or not.
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But we can ask you a question.
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But we can ask the question, What if this is true. What if gravity is indeed possible consequence for that is that the electronic theory and gravity is the final theory of nature, perhaps little fixes, which I discussed at the beginning.
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Okay, to be true, all the components of the Standard Model must be a simplistic way to say for.
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Okay. So, how we can approach this question. Okay. So, if we take the Standard Model without gravity and around all the Cutler's, we see, that's what some of these companies are so the free fine, like su two or three, but others, such as the Steelers
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and Scotland, and Sasha, so you want a couple hours notice
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if we're, if we include gravity. In the game, then we can look at the gravity anymore.
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vanishes skills, which are on the order of the tracks. And so, in some way, gravity should influence on the running of different companies.
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gravity itself. As we assume doesn't freak. So let's see how we can make the song, not so critical for some food safe. Now let's see whether we can make the Standard Model couple of minutes.
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I some political listed. In particular, the scales.
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So, let's try to do a very simple dimensional analysis.
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This is the
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average a derivative of the scale of self care plan.
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This is the standard model
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beetle function, and we want to include the gravity effects. Okay, so, again, very roughly very naively if this is a scalar self coupling. We may have contributions to to this diagram coming from graduate on change, and from dimensional grounds, the data
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function corresponding to gravity should be inversely proportional to the Planck scale, which is energy defender.
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It should be proportional to the energy square, and it should be proportional to the coupling itself. Okay.
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So, imagine that this is the correct description of all the gravity contributes. Okay, there is some number in front of this contribution, which we don't know.
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Okay, the people who are doing the exact RG equations, try to compute this number and they have some specific suggestions for you but let's leave this dimension.
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Less analysis, free for the moment. And let's see what is going to happen with the scales and Scotland, if this term is at.
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So let's first, the negative film.
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So, if you take a negative value see that this guy's and comes into the minus sign.
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And therefore, it introduces the simplistically free behavior to escape.
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About.
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If this is indeed the case, you conclude that not all scale a couple of hands up. Awesome.
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Kaplan Swisher possible. The only may correspond to the Higgs mass between 125 and 175 GY So, okay, if the Hicks masses later than that.
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Then the behavior is London, Paul, but London Paul appears below the consensus appears below Planck scale, this gravity contribution can without the candles.
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Now, if the Higgs mass is smaller than 125 gb, the scalar so Falcon gets negative. At some point, and the game. When the gravity contribution comes about.
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And that leads to the stability. Now, if we are between this points, then Okay, the scalar Coplin grows here, but then gravity, start the payroll, and we get us into the good of the freebie here, or here.
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Okay. The scholars of company woke up and then gravity includes, and then we still get zero skills and someone
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who actually finished, the more interesting situation appears, if this guy efficient is in fact possible.
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Because here, are you see what happens here, only one value of the hits mass walks.
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And this is the kicks mass equal to 125 June.
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So why so if it's smaller than 125 gV, then you're getting into negative values, and you get instability.
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If you are have a mass which is larger than 125 GV, you enter into $1 Paul became.
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Okay. And so,
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larger like this smaller than that. And this means that there is just one value, which would give you the behavior, which would correspond to an acceptable behavior of fun we
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of the scale.
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And this value would be 125 gb. If the Higgs mass, we're 171 point four.
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Okay so this actually leads to prediction of the Higgs mass. Before the Higgs boson as power it, and that's this asked to a possible understanding of the amazing fact that we have approximately this behavior at the blanks.
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Okay. Ah.
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Of course, there are a number of assumptions boots in this analysis. But still, I find it's kind of amazing that the numbers, which we see at the experiment.
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Show up is
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ok so i discussed.
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Up to now, the value of, of the scale.
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Okay, so is the behavior of skill sets up in which was essential.
00:35:12.000 --> 00:35:34.000
But there is yet another parameter in the standard model, which is chic smacks itself, or it will fix the stand up plan. This is the maximum expectation now you have the question arises, and gravity the
00:35:34.000 --> 00:35:39.000
essential for electronic signature.
00:35:39.000 --> 00:35:58.000
Okay, so let's, again, try to approach this question, forgetting about gravity. And the first question is, get the bug gravity and ask yourself, do we get in town symmetry.
00:35:58.000 --> 00:36:00.000
Understand standard model.
00:36:00.000 --> 00:36:05.000
If the mass of the kids was with the spoke to you.
00:36:05.000 --> 00:36:07.000
Why this question.
00:36:07.000 --> 00:36:16.000
This question is essential. And it's part of the nature of this material.
00:36:16.000 --> 00:36:37.000
So, the parameter of the theory is small majorly, if it's zero value means to increase the top. Yeah, so So, take me shake with you. So first, let's look at some of the classical the origin of the standard.
00:36:37.000 --> 00:36:59.000
And then you discover immediately that yes cemeteries and hands, and the classical direction of the standard model has a way of scaling there are, and scaling very nice is the transformational vision so we don't hear that they can fields, you change the
00:36:59.000 --> 00:37:14.000
scale of four units and then multiply the field by by some fact, in fact. Now, This parameter ambitious viewers here is nothing but can only convey mention of the corresponding field.
00:37:14.000 --> 00:37:19.000
So it's one for
00:37:19.000 --> 00:37:23.000
scalars and rector's three half.
00:37:23.000 --> 00:37:44.000
Okay, That's all space time symmetry conquering symmetry was 10 generators is enhanced to a direct product of one correct group and duplication so instead of 10 generators and get leverage.
00:37:44.000 --> 00:38:06.000
So in fact, if you look at the standard model the branch. The resultant symmetry is actually larger for in which is not just products product of upon correct group with Asians, the Standard Model gets conformity in one color group, but goes into SFO for
00:38:06.000 --> 00:38:14.000
two inches for mobile, but before they mentioned, the sort of tangent narrator, we get 15.
00:38:14.000 --> 00:38:25.000
So we got four translations for Lauren's transformations for special conformed transformation and one scale transformation.
00:38:25.000 --> 00:38:35.000
Before definition of conformity. Is that how this is for you in a transformation which leaves the metric and variant, up to some form effect.
00:38:35.000 --> 00:38:41.000
And this symmetry, very interesting symmetry, it was discovered.
00:38:41.000 --> 00:38:46.000
White the white label and more than 100 this year, the goal, and then the next one.
00:38:46.000 --> 00:38:49.000
So what, there's no formal Signature Bass.
00:38:49.000 --> 00:39:15.000
Ah, so if you make a scam transformation, then the scales of this finger, changing, whereas comfortable transformation, not only change the scale, but changing the picture, though it preserves the angles between different lines.
00:39:15.000 --> 00:39:21.000
So we can ask also. Okay, so this is the
00:39:21.000 --> 00:39:38.000
classical theory. What we're going to get the quantity of, if you look at corner lectures, back in 1971. Then his conclusion is that scale and Marion's.
00:39:38.000 --> 00:39:55.000
Can we call that the quantum level integration is hopeless and a cup of procedure necessarily involves a large massive watch mass necessarily break scale and not as much weight, but looks like we have no law theorem, down to conform or synergy and skills
00:39:55.000 --> 00:40:00.000
emergence are irrelevant quantum physics. So, this is not true.
00:40:00.000 --> 00:40:07.000
The statement that any cutoff procedure necessarily involves like mass.
00:40:07.000 --> 00:40:10.000
What the statement was done back and 71.
00:40:10.000 --> 00:40:24.000
There is a counterexample dimensional regularization, which is invented somewhat later. And this realization doesn't involve any watch mass just the normalization quiet, which is not sent to infinity this just to find the money.
00:40:24.000 --> 00:40:29.000
So, scaling, or else.
00:40:29.000 --> 00:40:46.000
Not as badly broken, still it is anomalous and realistic or normalize the RG running of parameters lead to one vanishing trace of furniture momentum tensor, which enters into the versions of the skin.
00:40:46.000 --> 00:41:01.000
So this is not zero. It will have rounded of of different factors. However, it tells that the that the physics quantities depend on the normalization scale, very quickly.
00:41:01.000 --> 00:41:23.000
Any quadratic diverging contributions to the wasn't mass pure technical in the standalone standard model and introduced by artificial exclusive breaking off conform environments by different, we believe, in fact, one can my quantum conformal same exact,
00:41:23.000 --> 00:41:29.000
but spontaneous broken realistic about.
00:41:29.000 --> 00:41:48.000
This can be done in the theorists were told no mineralization, so this video is contained except the Masters, we were born, there is no office, few sports or the Steelers are realistic, the price to pay that these theories are multiple normalize about
00:41:48.000 --> 00:42:05.000
And that happens on high damages like the Planck scale and gravity itself is not are no more theory, but I am I'm not going to discuss this. but this leads us to the following possible.
00:42:05.000 --> 00:42:20.000
Okay, we're going to have a theory, which is variant perform live, iron, steel Baron, and the classical level, then this theorists, we can compute the class.
00:42:20.000 --> 00:42:34.000
Okay, this is again another famous paper by Coleman Weinberg, 72, where they've done exactly this type of computation.
00:42:34.000 --> 00:42:49.000
They took you one theory, where the Higgs field with a stable field, which is invariant at the classical level, and then they consider what happens with this theory.
00:42:49.000 --> 00:42:50.000
at the quantum.
00:42:50.000 --> 00:42:56.000
Okay, and so what do we have here.
00:42:56.000 --> 00:43:03.000
So, as I said, the scale and this is a normal let us do two dimensional transmutation.
00:43:03.000 --> 00:43:14.000
Ah, so we don't need any counter turn to normalize the Higgs mass. Since we don't need the standard totally fixed mass can we predict.
00:43:14.000 --> 00:43:18.000
So RG equation for the kicks mass.
00:43:18.000 --> 00:43:35.000
All the way with different decades NASA is proportional to the fixed mass itself and if I fix masses ports to zero okay mobile side the parameter corresponding to the masses to zero, then
00:43:35.000 --> 00:43:55.000
stage zero, all the time. So, the way they approach this problem is that the computers, will this call now call them on language effective potential discovered that you want to read these on the Higgs phase, and then you just compute the ratio of the
00:43:55.000 --> 00:44:10.000
Higgs field to have the Higgs mass to the W mass and this is the prediction expression this ratio through the gauge cup.
00:44:10.000 --> 00:44:11.000
Okay.
00:44:11.000 --> 00:44:24.000
This is a very attractive idea. And many people try to make it work on this time of month. In the past, but doesn't
00:44:24.000 --> 00:44:28.000
doesn't work because on the full address.
00:44:28.000 --> 00:44:50.000
So if you take the mass of the top work, smaller than some critical value and the game is critical value, this 117 something gv, then you find out that the minimum of the potential for the kicks field for the scalar field is generated at a very very small
00:44:50.000 --> 00:45:01.000
amount. And it's generated by no but job it is to see the effects associated with Kyle symmetry break and inclusive.
00:45:01.000 --> 00:45:13.000
That is not what we observed. Okay. Now if you take the top mass larger than that. Then there is an extra minimum of the potential, which you already discussed.
00:45:13.000 --> 00:45:24.000
And then this extra medium is generated that at the scale which is on the order of blacks and the game does not work the niche.
00:45:24.000 --> 00:45:29.000
So, the PDF phase fails completely.
00:45:29.000 --> 00:45:33.000
Ah, however, it fails, without right.
00:45:33.000 --> 00:45:41.000
And we include the gravity, then the gravity comes with dimensional full breath.
00:45:41.000 --> 00:45:51.000
Okay. And this dimensional full parameter is just the planet scale Planck scale Newton scale.
00:45:51.000 --> 00:45:55.000
And therefore, gravity.
00:45:55.000 --> 00:45:57.000
I placed them in the center.
00:45:57.000 --> 00:46:23.000
Larry on the dust break the conformal symmetry, plus break the scale symmetry explicit. And the question arises, whether this explicit breaking open for a month, and scale symmetry can induce the Higgs mask and can use electronic signatures.
00:46:23.000 --> 00:46:27.000
So if you
00:46:27.000 --> 00:46:43.000
approach this problem for the National is not. Again, this is the reason why gravity contributions are normally ignored for computation of the fact that the bench.
00:46:43.000 --> 00:47:09.000
Why does it happen. So, okay, you can take RG equations. Let's take the English localization for instance, most easy to explain dimensional regularization all counter terms or infinities are pulling all malice, of coupling constants.
00:47:09.000 --> 00:47:09.000
Okay.
00:47:09.000 --> 00:47:32.000
Okay, and G Newton is a couple of constant, so it only appears, the corrections only appear as a powers of genius. Okay, um, this means that the RG flow for the Higgs mass remains the same.
00:47:32.000 --> 00:47:51.000
Okay, so there are corrections to the right hand side, which are proportional to the new than constant but they can only contain the Higgs mass to positive power, so that the point and equal to zero remains.
00:47:51.000 --> 00:48:01.000
Okay, and so the topic, the way you can change the previous two books. However,
00:48:01.000 --> 00:48:08.000
the person with the physics is know all the physics, which we should take into account that could be different numbers.
00:48:08.000 --> 00:48:11.000
And so
00:48:11.000 --> 00:48:19.000
it's interesting to look at so the possibility that if we take gravity and conformal invariant.
00:48:19.000 --> 00:48:36.000
Standard Model, whether, in this case, the breaking of conform of symmetry associated with gravity can be transmitted into electronic set. Again there are hopes.
00:48:36.000 --> 00:48:46.000
And this hopes are extremely generic Okay, so if you consider different in tune with the phenomena.
00:48:46.000 --> 00:49:07.000
And there are, there is a set of phenomena in which different facts.
00:49:07.000 --> 00:49:24.000
Okay and which you have a heavy nuclear decay by need an alpha particle, and you need this alpha particle this alpha particle shoot tunnel through the colon barrier, again this tunneling process.
00:49:24.000 --> 00:49:39.000
It's actually use the explanation suppression so that the with this decade is much much much smaller than the nation with an inverse few me, which you would expect from our main considerations.
00:49:39.000 --> 00:49:57.000
Okay yet another famous picture is just the quantum mechanical tunneling, and the who potential, which also has different applications. Yet another phenomenon which is not associated with the tunneling.
00:49:57.000 --> 00:50:01.000
But, which is some
00:50:01.000 --> 00:50:18.000
also gives small effects, is the mass gap MBCS superconductors where the critical temperature is exponentially small in comparison with the device.
00:50:18.000 --> 00:50:29.000
Okay so, this leads us, she to the question that could be that there is just one fundamental skill nature plan.
00:50:29.000 --> 00:50:56.000
And the electronic scale generated from it, nonprofits, and if this is the case, and if the physics behind that is rooted in probably or in semi classical approximation, we might expect that the Higgs mass can be exponentially suppressed, in comparison
00:50:56.000 --> 00:51:07.000
with the planet scale. Okay, so I am going to go through that kind of very quickly.
00:51:07.000 --> 00:51:16.000
Just, just to show you that this might work. Okay.
00:51:16.000 --> 00:51:29.000
So it looks like the simplest theory, which can do that for us as the scalar field where the minimal coupling to electronic right.
00:51:29.000 --> 00:51:33.000
So I will talk about Peter brothers, also.
00:51:33.000 --> 00:51:51.000
Tomorrow connection well cosmological applications here I just say that policy gravity is gravity in which the matter, and symmetric connections are treated as an independent time.
00:51:51.000 --> 00:51:54.000
Okay and then the action. Yes.
00:51:54.000 --> 00:52:05.000
So this part is like normal in ordinary metric gravity. This is a non minimal cup of the scale of field kicks.
00:52:05.000 --> 00:52:18.000
In this case, to our again next time I will also discuss that this company is essential for the universal evolution, and then there is connected Sure.
00:52:18.000 --> 00:52:42.000
And then there is this, there is potential for this parameter can be launched. It's actually needed to be launched to explain the inflation.
00:52:42.000 --> 00:53:01.000
We can look at this theory and try to see if the atomic scale can be generated from the grand scale of one to five minutes. Yeah, I'm fine. I'm finishing.
00:53:01.000 --> 00:53:08.000
Okay, so I'm not going into detail you have that's just the stage.
00:53:08.000 --> 00:53:10.000
The steps.
00:53:10.000 --> 00:53:26.000
But what do you want to compute you want to compute the scale of that maximum patient value, which is given by some path integral. Okay. Oh, degrees of freedom should be included there, including gravity scalar field itself.
00:53:26.000 --> 00:53:39.000
If we consider a small scale of fields, then gravity is an element. But in this case, we are not getting anything, because I as I explained the
00:53:39.000 --> 00:53:45.000
school on the way and corrections or not reproducing for us the correct.
00:53:45.000 --> 00:53:56.000
So, we have a challenge in front to compute contributions, like the Higgs field which are greater than the scale.
00:53:56.000 --> 00:54:13.000
So, to go, Whoa, whoa, whoa, what we can do, we can look at our action for large scale of things. And if you look at the action for life scale of fields, we can neglect the Planck scale.
00:54:13.000 --> 00:54:26.000
And what we get we get the scale in Marion theory, right included, where the Planck scale is done.
00:54:26.000 --> 00:54:42.000
After this realized, we can do more or less standard semi classical approximation, we can search for settled points of the fifth faction. So effect the faction, it contains the part, sitting here.
00:54:42.000 --> 00:54:45.000
Right.
00:54:45.000 --> 00:55:03.000
We can look at this effect the faction, and try to figure out where there is a semi classical expansion parameter, the answer happens to be yes and this request for parameter squared or Five Wishes on the role of one oh bar, WPB approximation.
00:55:03.000 --> 00:55:24.000
The regulated singularity so the action at a point where the scalar field is situated by higher dimensional brain first, and then you can search for solutions, and convince yourself that there could be solutions, which can lead to the scalar field, which
00:55:24.000 --> 00:55:35.000
is much smaller, which is much smaller than the landscape, so that this contribution is exponentially suppressed. Okay.
00:55:35.000 --> 00:55:44.000
Ah, while I go through that very quickly. This is an example of operator which can regulate the infinity is.
00:55:44.000 --> 00:55:55.000
And what this blood shows, it shows that if there's no minimum Captain a spray can watch them you can reach the correct.
00:55:55.000 --> 00:56:17.000
So no predictions can be made, because we don't know what this country needs. We don't know what this such operate or regulate and see how does it look like, but still, it shows that this is a possible, so that the high energy theory can be organized
00:56:17.000 --> 00:56:34.000
in such a way, that there is where a large scale scale. And there are multiple configurations, which lead to electronic signature breaking. When, very small.
00:56:34.000 --> 00:56:39.000
Back of expectation now. Okay, so these are my conclusions.
00:56:39.000 --> 00:56:58.000
But the conjecture that there is just one still nature, the plan, and that the firm is scaling generated dynamical before it might actually work though I have no clue about the cosmological constant, are the reason why the firm's scale is much smaller
00:56:58.000 --> 00:57:04.000
than the cloud scale, maybe rooted in conformance cemetery and non productive right effects.
00:57:04.000 --> 00:57:18.000
Whereas this specific value of this scale or self coupling, leading to criticality may be related to safety of gravity on the standard.
00:57:18.000 --> 00:57:30.000
That's all for today, thank you very much for your attention.
00:57:30.000 --> 00:57:32.000
Okay.
00:57:32.000 --> 00:57:42.000
Very much. Make him I'll turn it over to suit on who's moderating the question and answer portion.
00:57:42.000 --> 00:57:44.000
Thanks me how.
00:57:44.000 --> 00:57:53.000
Maybe we start backwards African the question what are some of the basic in need of provocation, just back a few pages with 34.
00:57:53.000 --> 00:58:13.000
h 434 34, there's a few pages back. And so, in the various equations or s, and M be your but I think we all forgot what does the definition for the, what is the difference of
00:58:13.000 --> 00:58:28.000
Humans here yet, but the envy and so what what's your definition and what they signify okay DCs superconductor this Bible Martine
00:58:28.000 --> 00:58:30.000
Schieffer.
00:58:30.000 --> 00:58:31.000
Yeah, that's a good conductor.
00:58:31.000 --> 00:58:41.000
conductor. And so here is the, the critical temperature.
00:58:41.000 --> 00:58:43.000
Okay.
00:58:43.000 --> 00:58:49.000
So you consider this
00:58:49.000 --> 00:58:56.000
one for whatever.
00:58:56.000 --> 00:59:05.000
When you cool down the system to very very small temperatures at some stage superconductivity appears. Okay.
00:59:05.000 --> 00:59:22.000
And the typical scale, there is this device spring. Okay, so the by screaming tells you what is the distance of which electric charged, is the screen.
00:59:22.000 --> 00:59:48.000
Okay. And so, this is generically kind of slide number. However, the critical temperature happens to be smaller than that. And the factors here, and then three Anthea is associate that with the number of density of electrons on the surface, and to me
00:59:48.000 --> 01:00:09.000
is associated with we think directions, between this electron. And so this this formula is derived from analysis of equation which in the quantum field theory would be called the Dyson swing the equation for the,
01:00:09.000 --> 01:00:12.000
for the electron propagate.
01:00:12.000 --> 01:00:20.000
Their effectively electron density me, can be interactions train between electrons.
01:00:20.000 --> 01:00:21.000
Okay.
01:00:21.000 --> 01:00:26.000
Then what about definition of s
01:00:26.000 --> 01:00:29.000
definition of fun, the s.
01:00:29.000 --> 01:00:32.000
The the SMS financial here.
01:00:32.000 --> 01:00:34.000
Yeah.
01:00:34.000 --> 01:00:39.000
Yeah. Okay, so here the definition of fast.
01:00:39.000 --> 01:00:44.000
Here, this number so this is just numeric so okay so.
01:00:44.000 --> 01:00:57.000
So, what was on this page image was the Higgs mass, you David from the beta implant is the
01:00:57.000 --> 01:01:16.000
plan scale taken from the dates are you take the lower if you get us. Okay, so what happens in this in this computation we should buy them straight, as the as the action on the classical solution, which minimizes the section.
01:01:16.000 --> 01:01:42.000
Okay, so this is just the classical semi classical experiment, it should be or some wo, the backward defined on this paper. Okay. Now, let me back up to the beginning so the on slide.
01:01:42.000 --> 01:01:44.000
is the London poll.
01:01:44.000 --> 01:01:49.000
Okay.
01:01:49.000 --> 01:01:57.000
The definition of Paul is, is the phone.
01:01:57.000 --> 01:01:59.000
Yeah.
01:01:59.000 --> 01:02:03.000
Okay.
01:02:03.000 --> 01:02:12.000
The simplest way to explain what it is, is the fallen for, look at this equation.
01:02:12.000 --> 01:02:19.000
Okay, or look at this equation, in which I crossed this part.
01:02:19.000 --> 01:02:28.000
Okay. And then, if you solve this equation on this as well. That's on size, you will find out that.
01:02:28.000 --> 01:02:33.000
So let's take this one for instance, and so
01:02:33.000 --> 01:02:41.000
you'll find out that g prime goes to infinity at sound value of image.
01:02:41.000 --> 01:02:47.000
And this is called bummed out.
01:02:47.000 --> 01:02:48.000
Yeah.
01:02:48.000 --> 01:03:01.000
Okay, so there is a story behind that, that's the, that's when this RG equations were when they were sold for the length of the nine x.
01:03:01.000 --> 01:03:15.000
And once this poll was discovered so one doll said that the quantum field theory is dead. Because since you have this poll.
01:03:15.000 --> 01:03:18.000
This also associated with being a director.
01:03:18.000 --> 01:03:21.000
So if you have this poll poll.
01:03:21.000 --> 01:03:41.000
This means default that supports that you want to define your theory, at the moment. Okay, and support that you say hi Amanda, you're copying constant is equal to some particular about.
01:03:41.000 --> 01:03:58.000
And then you say, Okay, I keep this value. And then I increase my image, what is going to happen to the influence. Okay. And then what is going to happen to the infrared, you get the couple of constant which is equal to zero, so that you are getting one
01:03:58.000 --> 01:04:00.000
interacting.
01:04:00.000 --> 01:04:03.000
And so the
01:04:03.000 --> 01:04:08.000
$1 the, at the time, was that all this.
01:04:08.000 --> 01:04:19.000
Quantum Theory doesn't make sense because all the all the consistency with interactions.
01:04:19.000 --> 01:04:27.000
OK, the next question is on page. Well,
01:04:27.000 --> 01:04:39.000
I think the person complaining, you said on the top line there at the top you power is the least known.
01:04:39.000 --> 01:04:42.000
Oh, the lowest accuracy, in fact.
01:04:42.000 --> 01:04:50.000
So I think there is a misunderstanding there probably low Is that accurate accuracy means the best accuracy accuracy thing.
01:04:50.000 --> 01:04:57.000
Right, so, because there are other couplings to other formulas in fact that not long at all, most or not.
01:04:57.000 --> 01:05:16.000
This is certainly true. My point here was that if you look at the at the ramen of all different couplings. Okay, the one which enters into the game, and which most important is you cover top.
01:05:16.000 --> 01:05:34.000
There are of course other cartoons, which, okay, we don't know so well. The mass of up and down works as below the mass of football, we don't have a pure see, so high has a determination of the top for as polite words, okay this is certainly true.
01:05:34.000 --> 01:05:50.000
My point was that this lights, the marketplace for responding to the after the light works, they do not contribute, this run because the American smaller, and though they're known with less accuracy.
01:05:50.000 --> 01:05:54.000
They are less important for, for this question.
01:05:54.000 --> 01:05:55.000
Yeah.
01:05:55.000 --> 01:05:59.000
Okay, so next question is,
01:05:59.000 --> 01:06:16.000
other simple modifications to the standard model that can prevent the heck self publishing going negative, which I assume is all higher mass scale. Other other other extensions and standards simply extending the standard model, and prevented go negative, or the hiring
01:06:16.000 --> 01:06:21.000
well I've seen that you can.
01:06:21.000 --> 01:06:27.000
If you modify the schema sector
01:06:27.000 --> 01:06:35.000
shouldn't be able to do that. But also, as I said that
01:06:35.000 --> 01:06:48.000
the scale so probably it's not necessarily boy. Now, the fact it can be wearable positive with the current values of the massive, massive.
01:06:48.000 --> 01:07:13.000
Yep. So maybe that's the next question is maybe somewhat related. It is that, how does your claim that center model is effective, all the way up to the banks go MP, go with a RL Dennis's.
01:07:13.000 --> 01:07:35.000
Could you please repeat the question right i think it is questioning the whether the standard model is valid at a very high mascot, with the standard that claim the standard model is effective, all the way up to the, the, the mass scale, the MP gel with
01:07:35.000 --> 01:07:41.000
with a pile Dennis's, or whether you can still kind of model it standard model is still valid.
01:07:41.000 --> 01:07:48.000
I don't know how it's related to borrow Genesis. That was the question.
01:07:48.000 --> 01:07:49.000
Right.
01:07:49.000 --> 01:07:57.000
Yeah, whether whether Santa model is still valid at the, at mass scale, given the the complication of the biochemistry.
01:07:57.000 --> 01:08:00.000
Okay.
01:08:00.000 --> 01:08:06.000
Okay. If we take the standard model itself.
01:08:06.000 --> 01:08:14.000
And don't do any modifications that plug this model them in cosmology.
01:08:14.000 --> 01:08:26.000
There we will fail will bear regionals okay so very Genesis doesn't work. And it doesn't work because of two reasons.
01:08:26.000 --> 01:08:36.000
One of this reasons is that if you take the Standard Model, then the University of illusion, the standard model is very small.
01:08:36.000 --> 01:08:41.000
And the same but there are no phase transitions, I mean, just that.
01:08:41.000 --> 01:08:55.000
There are thermal league room during the, the most time of the university pollution, the sound of more okay and so one of the soccer of conditions is not as fun.
01:08:55.000 --> 01:09:12.000
Now, if you also add to that the question of secure our nation. Then again, you'll find out that CPU iteration understand of model, its associated with reaction was power for us is very small.
01:09:12.000 --> 01:09:25.000
Okay so this two facts together. Tell us barrel Genesis doesn't work with the standard model. And therefore, the Standard Model must be modified in such in some way.
01:09:25.000 --> 01:09:31.000
Ah, which,
01:09:31.000 --> 01:09:34.000
which makes our barrel Genesis possible.
01:09:34.000 --> 01:09:49.000
There are several ways to do so. I guess there was a lecture today. Unfortunately, I didn't manage to look at the slides because they were in last night's this lecture, but
01:09:49.000 --> 01:10:10.000
the kind of minimal possibility is to have three extra neutrinos, then you can do very Genesis. You can also modify the scalar sector, and then we can do better with Genesis and first on the face transition then there are many, many Americans.
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Some of this variance, require modification of the standard model of launcher damages fail so for instance this modification on the standard model doesn't require okay and so if you if you take this type of notification then everything what I said about
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validity of the standard model at high energy this remains the same.
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Archie flow is the same.
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Right. So, the last question reported very long I wonder if we still have time for that or just rather answer at all fun.
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Rich Do we still have more time.
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No, I think we are at the end of our program for today.
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Now, this seems like a good stopping point.
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So, I think it's a good time to think.